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16s rRNA Sequencing with MR DNA

16S ribosomal  (rRNA) sequencing using next generation sequencing is a method used to identify and compare bacteria and archaea present within almost any type of sample. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a well-established method for studying phylogeny and taxonomy of samples from complex microbiomes or environments that are difficult or impossible to study.

 

 

 

 

16s sequencing illumina or PGM low cost prices with MR DNA

MR DNA is a next generation sequencing provider with low cost 16s sequencing services.

 

PLoS One. 2014 May 22;9(5):e98425. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098425. eCollection 2014.

Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

Yamamuro A1, Kouzuma A1, Abe T2, Watanabe K1.

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Abstract

Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

PMID: 24852573 PMCID: PMC4031174 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098425

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Select item 24564472

42.

BMC Genomics. 2013;14 Suppl 5:S16. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-S5-S16. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Analysis of the intestinal microbiota using SOLiD 16S rRNA gene sequencing and SOLiD shotgun sequencing.

Mitra S, Förster-Fromme K, Damms-Machado A, Scheurenbrand T, Biskup S, Huson DH, Bischoff SC.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Metagenomics seeks to understand microbial communities and assemblages by DNA sequencing. Technological advances in next generation sequencing technologies are fuelling a rapid growth in the number and scope of projects aiming to analyze complex microbial environments such as marine, soil or the gut. Recent improvements in longer read lengths and paired-sequencing allow better resolution in profiling microbial communities. While both 454 sequencing and Illumina sequencing have been used in numerous metagenomic studies, SOLiD sequencing is not commonly used in this area, as it is believed to be more suitable in the context of reference-guided projects.

RESULTS:

To investigate the performance of SOLiD sequencing in a metagenomic context, we compared taxonomic profiles of SOLiD mate-pair sequencing reads with Sanger paired reads and 454 single reads. All sequences were obtained from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, which was amplified from microbial DNA extracted from a human fecal sample. Additionally, from the same fecal sample, complete genomic microbial DNA was extracted and shotgun sequenced using SOLiD sequencing to study the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the existing microbial metabolism. We found that the microbiota composition of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained using Sanger, 454 and SOLiD sequencing provide results comparable to the result based on shotgun sequencing. Moreover, with SOLiD sequences we obtained more resolution down to the species level. In addition, the shotgun data allowed us to determine a functional profile using the databases SEED and KEGG.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study shows that SOLiD mate-pair sequencing is a viable and cost-efficient option for analyzing a complex microbiome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that SOLiD sequencing has been used in a human sample.

PMID: 24564472 PMCID: PMC3852202 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-S5-S16

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Select item 24502797

43.

Biotechniques. 2014 Feb 1;56(2):78-84. doi: 10.2144/000114135. eCollection 2014.

TUIT, a BLAST-based tool for taxonomic classification of nucleotide sequences.

Tuzhikov A1, Panchin A2, Shestopalov VI3.

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Abstract

Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes has become the gold standard in human microbiome studies. The routine task of taxonomic classification using 16S rRNA reads is commonly performed by the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) II Classifier, a robust tool that relies on a set of well-characterized reference sequences. However, the RDP II Classifier may be unable to classify a significant part of the data set due to the absence of proper reference sequences. The taxonomic classification for some unclassified sequences might still be performed using BLAST searches against large and frequently updated nucleotide databases. Here we introduce TUIT (Taxonomic Unit Identification Tool)-an efficient open source and platform-independent application that can perform taxonomic classification on its own or can be used in combination with the RDP II Classifier to maximize the taxonomic identification rate. Using a set of simulated DNA sequences, we demonstrate that the algorithm performs taxonomic classification with high specificity for sequences as short as 125 base pairs. TUIT is applicable for 16S rRNA gene sequence classification; however, it is not restricted to 16S rRNA sequences. In addition, TUIT may be used as a complementary tool for effective taxonomic classification of nucleotide sequences generated by many current platforms, such as Roche 454 and Illumina. Stand-alone TUIT is available online at http://sourceforge.net/projects/tuit/.

KEYWORDS:

bioinformatics; metagenome; microbiome; next-generation sequencing; software; taxonomic classification

PMID: 24502797 PMCID: PMC4186660 DOI: 10.2144/000114135

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44.

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 12;8(11):e79812. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079812. eCollection 2013.

Diverse vaginal microbiomes in reproductive-age women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Liu MB1, Xu SR, He Y, Deng GH, Sheng HF, Huang XM, Ouyang CY, Zhou HW.

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Abstract

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most prevalent vaginal infectious diseases, and there are controversial reports regarding the diversity of the associated vaginal microbiota. We determined the vaginal microbial community in patients with VVC, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and mixed infection of VVC and BV using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags. Our results revealed for the first time the highly variable patterns of the vaginal microbiome from VVC patients. In general, the alpha-diversity results of species richness and evenness showed the following order: normal control < VVC only < mixed BV and VVC infection < BV only. The beta-diversity comparison of community structures also showed an intermediate composition of VVC between the control and BV samples. A detailed comparison showed that, although the control and BV communities had typical patterns, the vaginal microbiota of VVC is complex. The mixed BV and VVC infection group showed a unique pattern, with a relatively higher abundance of Lactobacillus than the BV group and higher abundance of Prevotella, Gardnerella, and Atopobium than the normal control. In contrast, the VVC-only group could not be described by any single profile, ranging from a community structure similar to the normal control (predominated with Lactobacillus) to BV-like community structures (abundant with Gardnerella and Atopobium). Treatment of VVC resulted in inconsistent changes of the vaginal microbiota, with four BV/VVC samples recovering to a higher Lactobacillus level, whereas many VVC-only patients did not. These results will be useful for future studies on the role of vaginal microbiota in VVC and related infectious diseases.

PMID: 24265786 PMCID: PMC3827160 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079812

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Select item 24237341

45.

Genome. 2013 Oct;56(10):599-611. doi: 10.1139/gen-2013-0069. Epub 2013 May 30.

Metagenomic analysis of an anaerobic alkane-degrading microbial culture: potential hydrocarbon-activating pathways and inferred roles of community members.

Tan B1, Dong X, Sensen CW, Foght J.

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Abstract

A microbial community (short-chain alkane-degrading culture, SCADC) enriched from an oil sands tailings pond was shown to degrade C6-C10 alkanes under methanogenic conditions. Total genomic DNA from SCADC was subjected to 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina paired-end sequencing, and 16S rRNA amplicon pyrotag sequencing; the latter revealed 320 operational taxonomic units at 5% distance. Metagenomic sequences were subjected to in-house quality control and co-assembly, yielding 984 086 contigs, and annotation using MG-Rast and IMG. Substantial nucleotide and protein recruitment to Methanosaeta concilii, Syntrophus aciditrophicus, and Desulfobulbus propionicus reference genomes suggested the presence of closely related strains in SCADC; other genomes were not well mapped, reflecting the paucity of suitable reference sequences for such communities. Nonetheless, we detected numerous homologues of putative hydrocarbon succinate synthase genes (e.g., assA, bssA, and nmsA) implicated in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, suggesting the ability of the SCADC microbial community to initiate methanogenic alkane degradation by addition to fumarate. Annotation of a large contig revealed analogues of the ass operon 1 in the alkane-degrading sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01. Despite being enriched under methanogenic-fermentative conditions, additional metabolic functions inferred by COG profiling indicated multiple CO(2) fixation pathways, organic acid utilization, hydrogenase activity, and sulphate reduction.

PMID: 24237341 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2013-0069

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Select item 24223712

46.

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 1;8(11):e77443. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077443. eCollection 2013.

Comparative metagenomics of anode-associated microbiomes developed in rice paddy-field microbial fuel cells.

Kouzuma A1, Kasai T, Nakagawa G, Yamamuro A, Abe T, Watanabe K.

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Abstract

In sediment-type microbial fuel cells (sMFCs) operating in rice paddy fields, rice-root exudates are converted to electricity by anode-associated rhizosphere microbes. Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae are enriched on the anodes of rhizosphere sMFCs. To deepen our understanding of rhizosphere microbes involved in electricity generation in sMFCs, here, we conducted comparative analyses of anode-associated microbiomes in three MFC systems: a rice paddy-field sMFC, and acetate- and glucose-fed MFCs in which pieces of graphite felt that had functioned as anodes in rice paddy-field sMFC were used as rhizosphere microbe-bearing anodes. After electric outputs became stable, microbiomes associated with the anodes of these MFC systems were analyzed by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun metagenomics. Pyrotag sequencing showed that Geobacteraceae bacteria were associated with the anodes of all three systems, but the dominant Geobacter species in each MFC were different. Specifically, species closely related to G. metallireducens comprised 90% of the anode Geobacteraceae in the acetate-fed MFC, but were only relatively minor components of the rhizosphere sMFC and glucose-fed MFC, whereas species closely related to G. psychrophilus were abundantly detected. This trend was confirmed by the phylogenetic assignments of predicted genes in shotgun metagenome sequences of the anode microbiomes. Our findings suggest that G. psychrophilus and its related species preferentially grow on the anodes of rhizosphere sMFCs and generate electricity through syntrophic interactions with organisms that excrete electron donors.

PMID: 24223712 PMCID: PMC3815305 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077443

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47.

DNA Res. 2014;21(2):115-25. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dst044. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Diet alters both the structure and taxonomy of the ovine gut microbial ecosystem.

Ellison MJ1, Conant GC, Cockrum RR, Austin KJ, Truong H, Becchi M, Lamberson WR, Cammack KM.

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Abstract

We surveyed the ruminal metagenomes of 16 sheep under two different diets using Illumina pair-end DNA sequencing of raw microbial DNA extracted from rumen samples. The resulting sequence data were bioinformatically mapped to known prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequences to identify the taxa present in the samples and then analysed for the presence of potentially new taxa. Strikingly, the majority of the microbial individuals found did not map to known taxa from 16S sequence databases. We used a novel statistical modelling approach to compare the taxonomic distributions between animals fed a forage-based diet and those fed concentrated grains. With this model, we found significant differences between the two groups both in the dominant taxa present in the rumen and in the overall shape of the taxa abundance curves. In general, forage-fed animals have a more diverse microbial ecosystem, whereas the concentrate-fed animals have ruminal systems more heavily dominated by a few taxa. As expected, organisms from methanogenic groups are more prevalent in forage-fed animals. Finally, all of these differences appear to be grounded in an underlying common input of new microbial individuals into the rumen environment, with common organisms from one feed group being present in the other, but at much lower abundance.

KEYWORDS:

16S subunit; Ovis aries; microbiome

PMID: 24170804 PMCID: PMC3989484 DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dst044

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39.

BMC Microbiol. 2014 Sep 7;14:225. doi: 10.1186/s12866-014-0225-3.

The presence of nitrate dramatically changed the predominant microbial community in perchlorate degrading cultures under saline conditions.

Stepanov VG, Xiao Y, Tran Q, Rojas M, Willson RC, Fofanov Y, Fox GE, Roberts DJ.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Perchlorate contamination has been detected in both ground water and drinking water. An attractive treatment option is the use of ion-exchange to remove and concentrate perchlorate in brine. Biological treatment can subsequently remove the perchlorate from the brine. When nitrate is present, it will also be concentrated in the brine and must also be removed by biological treatment. The primary objective was to obtain an in-depth characterization of the microbial populations of two salt-tolerant cultures each of which is capable of metabolizing perchlorate. The cultures were derived from a single ancestral culture and have been maintained in the laboratory for more than 10 years. One culture was fed perchlorate only, while the other was fed both perchlorate and nitrate.

RESULTS:

A metagenomic characterization was performed using Illumina DNA sequencing technology, and the 16S rDNA of several pure strains isolated from the mixed cultures were sequenced. In the absence of nitrate, members of the Rhodobacteraceae constituted the prevailing taxonomic group. Second in abundance were the Rhodocyclaceae. In the nitrate fed culture, the Rhodobacteraceae are essentially absent. They are replaced by a major expansion of the Rhodocyclaceae and the emergence of the Alteromonadaceae as a significant community member. Gene sequences exhibiting significant homology to known perchlorate and nitrate reduction enzymes were found in both cultures.

CONCLUSIONS:

The structure of the two microbial ecosystems of interest has been established and some representative strains obtained in pure culture. The results illustrate that under favorable conditions a group of organisms can readily dominate an ecosystem and yet be effectively eliminated when their advantage is lost. Almost all known perchlorate-reducing organisms can also effectively reduce nitrate. This is certainly not the case for the Rhodobacteraceae that were found to dominate in the absence of nitrate, but effectively disappeared in its presence. This study is significant in that it reveals the existence of a novel group of organisms that play a role in the reduction of perchlorate under saline conditions. These Rhodobacteraceae especially, as well as other organisms present in these communities may be a promising source of unique salt-tolerant enzymes for perchlorate reduction.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov .

PMID: 25194715 PMCID: PMC4174249 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-014-0225-3

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40.

Mol Ecol. 2014 Sep;23(18):4498-510. doi: 10.1111/mec.12885. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

Bragina A1, Oberauner-Wappis L, Zachow C, Halwachs B, Thallinger GG, Müller H, Berg G.

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Abstract

Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov .

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS:

FISH-CLSM; Sphagnum moss; bog ecosystem; illumina-based metagenomics; plant microbiome

PMID: 25113243 DOI: 10.1111/mec.12885

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Microbiome. 2015 Oct 27;3:50. doi: 10.1186/s40168-015-0116-3.

Microbiomes of the dust particles collected from the International Space Station and Spacecraft Assembly Facilities.

Checinska A1, Probst AJ2, Vaishampayan P1, White JR3, Kumar D4, Stepanov VG4, Fox GE4, Nilsson HR5, Pierson DL6, Perry J7, Venkateswaran K8.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique built environment due to the effects of microgravity, space radiation, elevated carbon dioxide levels, and especially continuous human habitation. Understanding the composition of the ISS microbial community will facilitate further development of safety and maintenance practices. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the viable microbiome of the ISS-built environment. A second objective was to determine if the built environments of Earth-based cleanrooms associated with space exploration are an appropriate model of the ISS environment.

RESULTS:

Samples collected from the ISS and two cleanrooms at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, Pasadena, CA) were analyzed by traditional cultivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assays to estimate viable microbial populations. The 16S rRNA gene Illumina iTag sequencing was used to elucidate microbial diversity and explore differences between ISS and cleanroom microbiomes. Statistical analyses showed that members of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were dominant in the samples examined but varied in abundance. Actinobacteria were predominant in the ISS samples whereas Proteobacteria, least abundant in the ISS, dominated in the cleanroom samples. The viable bacterial populations seen by PMA treatment were greatly decreased. However, the treatment did not appear to have an effect on the bacterial composition (diversity) associated with each sampling site.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this study provide strong evidence that specific human skin-associated microorganisms make a substantial contribution to the ISS microbiome, which is not the case in Earth-based cleanrooms. For example, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium (Actinobacteria) but not Staphylococcus (Firmicutes) species are dominant on the ISS in terms of viable and total bacterial community composition. The results obtained will facilitate future studies to determine how stable the ISS environment is over time. The present results also demonstrate the value of measuring viable cell diversity and population size at any sampling site. This information can be used to identify sites that can be targeted for more stringent cleaning. Finally, the results will allow comparisons with other built sites and facilitate future improvements on the ISS that will ensure astronaut health.

PMID: 26502721 PMCID: PMC4624184 DOI: 10.1186/s40168-015-0116-3

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16s rRNA Sequencing with MR DNA

16S ribosomal  (rRNA) sequencing using next generation sequencing is a method used to identify and compare bacteria and archaea present within almost any type of sample. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a well-established method for studying phylogeny and taxonomy of samples from complex microbiomes or environments that are difficult or impossible to study.

 

 

 

 

16s sequencing illumina or PGM low cost prices with MR DNA

MR DNA is a next generation sequencing provider with low cost 16s sequencing services.

 

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